Charles Monroe has worked as an engineer in the cryogenic sector for over thirty years bringing innovative engineering to new applications and prototype systems for industry and research establishments.
He graduated from Cambridge University with a degree in Engineering and qualified as a Chartered Engineer with the Institution of Mechanical Engineers shortly afterwards. In 2006 he was elected a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
His first position was with Oxford Instruments Ltd designing and building large superconducting magnets and the associated cooling systems. This was followed by work with two industrial gas companies, Air Products PLC and then Sapio Srl, Monza, Italy. For the last twenty five years he has run his own business as an engineering consultant to an extensive client base in Europe and the USA including Diamond Light Source Ltd, Brookhaven National Laboratory USA, Sigmaphi France, Oxford Instruments, Babcock Noell GmbH, Air Products PLC, Sapio Srl Italy, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and Tokamak Energy Ltd.
The range of technologies has included cooling with liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and cryocoolers. This has been applied to scientific instruments, superconducting magnets, superconducting RF cavities, detector cooling for radio telescopes, pharmaceutical and petrochemical processes, freeze drying, environmental test chambers, carbon capture and storage and tokamaks for fusion.
Cryogenic applications for superconductivity can have cooling requirements ranging from a few milliwatts up to kilowatts. The designer has to address the question: what is the best way to deliver this cooling power? The lecture will provide an overview of the typical methods of delivering the necessary cooling for a range of cryogenic applications.
The first part of the talk will review the principles of refrigeration, draw conclusions about the cost of refrigeration and present the options of cooling either from cryogens delivered by an external supplier, from cryocoolers or from a large scale helium liquefier.
The second part will look at a number of example applications for superconductivity. These will include superconducting RF cavities for accelerators, low loss NMR magnets (low cryogen loss), and superconducting magnets with cryocoolers which can be either zero cryogen loss or dry systems. In each case a study of the application, the resources available, the cooling requirements, the need for stability and the economics will all contribute to identifying the most appropriate cooling method.